History of Ireland (1691–1801)

History of Ireland (1691–1801)
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The history of Ireland from 1691–1801 was marked by the dominance of the Protestant Ascendancy. These were Anglo-Irish families of the Anglican Church of Ireland, whose English ancestors had settled Ireland in the wake of its conquest by England and colonisation in the Plantations of Ireland, and now owned most of the land. Many were absentee landlords based in England, but others lived full-time in Ireland and increasingly identified as Irish. (See Early Modern Ireland 1536-1691). During this time, Ireland was a theoretically autonomous Kingdom with its own Parliament; in reality it was a client state controlled by the King of Great Britain and supervised by his cabinet in London. The great majority of its population, Roman Catholics, were excluded from power and land ownership under the Penal Laws. The second-largest group, the Presbyterians in Ulster, owned land and businesses but could not vote and had no political power. The period begins with the defeat of the Catholic Jacobites in the Williamite War in Ireland in 1691 and ends with the Acts of Union 1800, which formally annexed Ireland in a United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 and dissolved the Irish Parliament.


1 Economic situation
2 Irish politics

2.1 The Penal Laws
2.2 “Grattan’s Parliament” and the Volunteers
2.3 The United Irishmen, the 1798 Rebellion and the Acts of Union

3 Culture
4 Legacy
5 See also
6 References
7 Further reading

Economic situation[edit]
In the wake of the wars of conquest of the 17th century, completely deforested of timber for export (usually for the Royal Navy) and for a temporary iron industry in the course of the 17th century, Irish estates turned to the export of salt beef, pork, butter, and hard cheese through the slaughterhouse and port city of Cork, which supplied England, the British navy and the sugar islands of the West Indies. George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne wondered “how a foreigner could possibly conceive that half the inhabi